# Financial Ratios

### Markel Corporation (MKL)

### Liquidity Measurement Ratios

Current Ratio | $\dfrac{Current Assets}{Current Liabilities}$ | 4.89 | A current ratio of 1.0 or greater is an indication that the company is well-positioned to cover its current or short-term liabilities. |

Quick Ratio | $\dfrac{Cash and Cash Equivalents + Short Term Investments + Account Receivables}{Current Liabilities}$ | 4.89 | The quick ratio is more conservative than the current ratio because it excludes inventory and other current assets, which generally are more difficult to turn into cash. A higher quick ratio means a more liquid current position. |

Cash Ratio | $\dfrac{Cash and Cash Equivalents}{Current Liabilities}$ | 0.69 | The cash ratio is almost like an indicator of a firm’s value under the worst-case scenario where the company is about to go out of business. |

Days of Sales Outstanding | $\dfrac{(Account Receivable (start) + Account Receivable (end))/2}{Revenue/365}$ | 0.00 | DSO tells you how many days after the sale it takes people to pay you on average. |

Days of Inventory Outstanding | $\dfrac{(Inventories (start) + Inventories (end))/2}{COGS/365}$ | 0.00 | DIO tells you how many days inventory sits on the shelf on average. |

Operating Cycle | $\dfrac{DSO + DIO}{}$ | 0.00 | (DSO + DIO )Basically the Operating Cycle tells you how many days it takes for something to go from first being in inventory to receiving the cash after the sale. |

Days of Payables Outstanding | $\dfrac{(Accounts Payable (start) + Accounts Payable (end))/2}{COGS/365}$ | 51.36 | DPO tells you how many days the company takes to pay its suppliers. |

Cash Conversion Cycle | $\dfrac{DSO + DIO − DPO}{}$ | -51.36 | The cash conversion cycle (CCC = DSO + DIO – DPO) measures the number of days a company's cash is tied up in the production and sales process of its operations and the benefit it derives from payment terms from its creditors. The shorter this cycle, the more liquid the company's working capital position is. The CCC is also known as the "cash" or "operating" cycle. |

### Profitability Indicator Ratios

Gross Profit Margin | $\dfrac{Gross Profit}{Revenue}$ | 0.70 | You can think of it as the amount of money from product sales left over after all of the direct costs associated with manufacturing the product have been paid. |

Operating Profit Margin | $\dfrac{Operating Income}{Revenue}$ | 0.26 | If companies can make enough money from their operations to support the business, the company is usually considered more stable. |

Pretax Profit Margin | $\dfrac{Income Before Tax}{Revenue}$ | 0.24 | Profit is the main goal of for-profit organizations. The goal is to make a profit through growth and to grow every year. As a result, one of the most important roles of the financial and investment analyst is to track and forecast profitability. |

Net Profit Margin | $\dfrac{Net Income}{Revenue}$ | 0.19 | Generally, a net profit margin in excess of 10% is considered excellent, though it depends on the industry and the structure of the business. |

Effective Tax Rate | $\dfrac{Provision For Income Taxes}{Income Before Tax}$ | 0.21 | If there’s one takeaway, it should be that a company’s tax situation is all but a living, breathing organism in its own right. |

Return On Assets | $\dfrac{Net Income}{Average Total Assets}$ | 0.05 | ROA Return on assets gives an indication of the capital intensity of the company, which will depend on the industry; companies that require large initial investments will generally have lower return on assets. ROAs over 5% are generally considered good. |

Return On Equity | $\dfrac{Net Income}{Average Total Equity}$ | 0.16 | ROE this ratio calculates how much money is made based on the investors' investment in the company.investors want to see a high return on equity ratio because this indicates that the company is using its investors' funds effectively. |

Return On Capital Employed | $\dfrac{EBIT}{Average Total Asset − Average Current Liabilities}$ | 0.08 | ROCE shows investors how many dollars in profits each dollar of capital employed generates. |

NIperEBT | $\dfrac{Net Income}{EBT}$ | 0.78 | NIperEBT. |

EBTperEBIT | $\dfrac{EBT}{EBIT}$ | 0.92 | EBTperEBIT. |

EBITperRevenue | $\dfrac{EBIT}{Revenue}$ | 0.26 | EBITperRevenue. |

### Debt Ratios

Debt Ratio | $\dfrac{Total Liabilities}{Total Assets}$ | 0.70 | The debt ratio tells us the degree of leverage used by the company. |

Debt Equity Ratio | $\dfrac{Total Debt}{Total Equity}$ | 2.38 | This is a measurement of the percentage of the company’s balance sheet that is financed by suppliers, lenders, creditors and obligors versus what the shareholders have committed. |

Long-term Debt to Capitalization | $\dfrac{Long−Term Debt}{Long−Term Debt + Shareholders Equity}$ | - | While a high capitalization ratio can increase the return on equity because of the tax shield of debt, a higher proportion of debt increases the risk of bankruptcy for a company. |

Total Debt to Capitalization | $\dfrac{Total Debt}{Total Debt + Shareholders Equity}$ | - | Capitalization ratio describes to investors the extent to which a company is using debt to fund its business and expansion plans. |

Interest Coverage Ratio | $\dfrac{EBIT}{Interest Expense}$ | 14.43 | The lower a company’s interest coverage ratio is, the more its debt expenses burden the company. |

Cash Flow to Debt Ratio | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flows}{Total Debt}$ | - | The cash flow to debt ratio reveals the ability of a business to support its debt obligations from its operating cash flows. |

Company Equity Multiplier | $\dfrac{Total Assets}{Total Equity}$ | 3.38 | This is a measure of financial leverage. |

### Operating Performance Ratios

Fixed Asset Turnover | $\dfrac{Revenue}{NetPPE}$ | - | Calculates how efficiently a company is a producing sales with its machines and equipment. |

Asset Turnover | $\dfrac{Revenue}{Total Average Assets}$ | 0.25 | The Asset Turnover ratio can often be used as an indicator of the efficiency with which a company is deploying its assets in generating revenue. |

### Cash Flow Indicator Ratios

Operating Cash Flow Sales Ratio | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flow}{Revenue}$ | 0.13 | Gives investors an idea of the company's ability to turn sales into cash. |

Free Cash Flow Operating Cash Flow Ratio | $\dfrac{Free Cash Flow}{Operating Cash Flow}$ | 0.90 | The higher the percentage of free cash flow embedded in a company's operating cash flow, the greater the financial strength of the company. |

Cash Flow Coverage Ratios | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flow}{Total Debt}$ | - | The operating cash flow is simply the amount of cash generated by the company from its main operations, which are used to keep the business funded. |

Short-Term Coverage Ratios | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flow}{Short-Term Debt}$ | - | The short-term debt coverage ratio compares the sum of a company's short-term borrowings and the current portion of its long-term debt to operating cash flow. |

Capital Expenditure Coverage Ratios | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flow}{Capital Expenditure}$ | 10.33 | The larger the operating cash flow coverage for these items, the greater the company's ability to meet its obligations, along with giving the company more cash flow to expand its business, withstand hard times, and not be burdened by debt servicing and the restrictions typically included in credit agreements. |

Dividend Paid and Capex Coverage Ratios | $\dfrac{Operating Cash Flow}{Dividend Paid + Capital Expenditure}$ | 9.63 | For conservative investors focused on cash flow coverage, comparing the sum of a company's capital expenditures and cash dividends to its operating cash flow is a stringent measurement that puts cash flow to the ultimate test. If a company is able to cover both of these outlays of funds from internal sources and still have cash left over, it is producing what might be called "free cash flow on steroids". This circumstance is a highly favorable investment quality. |

Dividend Payout Ratio | $\dfrac{DPS (Dividend per Share)}{EPS (Net Income per Share Number}$ | 0.01 | The dividend payout ratio is an indicator of how well earnings support the dividend payment. |

### Investment Valuation Ratios

Price Book Value Ratio | $\dfrac{Stock Price per Share}{Equity per Share}$ | 1.47 | The price-to-book value ratio, expressed as a multiple (i.e. how many times a company's stock is trading per share compared to the company's book value per share), is an indication of how much shareholders are paying for the net assets of a company. |

Price Cash Flow Ratio | $\dfrac{Stock Price per Share}{Operating Cash Flow per Share}$ | 12.78 | The price/cash flow ratio is used by investors to evaluate the investment attractiveness, from a value standpoint, of a company's stock. |

Price Earnings Ratio | $\dfrac{Stock Price per Share}{EPS}$ | 9.10 | The financial reporting of both companies and investment research services use a basic earnings per share (EPS) figure divided into the current stock price to calculate the P/E multiple (i.e. how many times a stock is trading (its price) per each dollar of EPS). |

Price Earnings to Growth Ratio | $\dfrac{Price Earnings Ratio}{Expected Revenue Growth}$ | -0.98 | The PEG ratio is a refinement of the P/E ratio and factors in a stock's estimated earnings growth into its current valuation.The general consensus is that if the PEG ratio indicates a value of 1, this means that the market is correctly valuing (the current P/E ratio) a stock in accordance with the stock's current estimated earnings per share growth. If the PEG ratio is less than 1, this means that EPS growth is potentially able to surpass the market's current valuation. In other words, the stock's price is being undervalued. On the other hand, stocks with high PEG ratios can indicate just the opposite - that the stock is currently overvalued. |

Price Sales Ratio | $\dfrac{Stock Price per Share}{Revenue per Share}$ | 1.71 | The P/E ratio and P/S reflects how many times investors are paying for every dollar of a company's sales. Since earnings are subject, to one degree or another, to accounting estimates and management manipulation, many investors consider a company's sales (revenue) figure a more reliable ratio component in calculating a stock's price multiple than the earnings figure. |

Dividend Yield | $\dfrac{Dividend per Share}{Stock Price per Share}$ | 0.00 | Income investors value a dividend-paying stock, while growth investors have little interest in dividends, preferring to capture large capital gains. Whatever your investing style, it is a matter of historical record that dividend-paying stocks have performed better than non-paying-dividend stocks over the long term. |

Enterprise Value Multiplier | $\dfrac{Entreprise Value}{EBITDA}$ | 4.81 | Overall, this measurement allows investors to assess a company on the same basis as that of an acquirer. As a rough calculation, enterprise value multiple serves as a proxy for how long it would take for an acquisition to earn enough to pay off its costs in years(assuming no change in EBITDA). |

Price Fair Value | $\dfrac{Stock Price per Share}{Intrinsic Value}$ | 1.47 | Helps investors determine whether a stock is trading at, below, or above its fair value estimate,A price/fair value ratio below 1 suggests the stock is trading at a discount to its fair value, while a ratio above 1 suggests it is trading at a premium to its fair value. |